Effective Pig Farming: Strategies for Health and Efficiency

Unlike livestock such as sheep, cattle, and goats, which are typically raised on open pastures, pigs are often farmed in confined settings like piggeries, sties, or enclosed sheds. These environments, while efficient for production, increase the likelihood of diseases like diarrhea and pneumonia, making stringent hygiene and biosecurity measures essential.

Image: Jacqueline Mills

Hygiene and Biosecurity Measures

To mitigate disease risks, it is crucial for pig farmers to maintain a clean living environment. Regular cleaning and disinfecting of pig housing, including walls and floors, as well as timely removal of waste, are essential practices. Key components of successful pig farming also include regular deworming, providing clean water and nutritious food, ensuring adequate bedding and shelter, and maintaining proper ventilation.

Moreover, installing disinfectant foot baths at the entrances of pig housing and disinfecting vehicle undercarriages and tires can help reduce the spread of diseases such as African swine fever.

Vital Health Practices

Administering vaccines and supplements is a critical aspect of pig farming. To prevent anemia, piglets should receive an intramuscular iron supplement, such as Dexiron 200, behind the ear on their third day of life. Regular antiparasitic treatments, like Dectomax or Ecomectin, are recommended every four to six months to manage worms and skin conditions.

Following a strict vaccination schedule is also important to prevent common illnesses like diarrhea, pneumonia, and reproductive issues in female pigs. For example, piglets should receive Respisure at one week old and again at three weeks, along with Fostera PCV MetaStim. Gilts and sows have their specific vaccination regimens to ensure their reproductive health and productivity.

Safety and Record Keeping

Using sterile equipment and maintaining proper hygiene when administering injections is critical. Boiling water is preferred over chemical disinfectants for sterilizing syringes and needles, as some disinfectants can compromise vaccine effectiveness. Handling aggressive pigs carefully is necessary to prevent injuries to both the animals and handlers. Keeping detailed records of vaccinations, deworming, mating, and farrowing dates is essential for organized and efficient farm management.


While vaccines play a significant role in disease prevention, they should be supported by good sanitation practices, robust biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Transporting vaccines in cooler bags to prevent heat exposure is also crucial to maintain their effectiveness. By adhering to these best practices, pig farmers can ensure the health and productivity of their herds, leading to a successful and sustainable farming operation.

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