Rising Exports, Falling Fortunes: The Dichotomy of Zimbabwe’s Tobacco Industry in 2024

In the heart of Africa, Zimbabwe’s tobacco farmers are facing one of their toughest seasons yet, grappling with the dual challenges of diminishing crops and declining prices. Despite a remarkable surge in export volume, the economic landscape for tobacco producers remains bleak, highlighting the complex interplay of global market forces and local environmental vulnerabilities.

Export Boom, Earnings Bust

In 2024, Zimbabwe’s tobacco exports witnessed an unprecedented surge, with export volumes skyrocketing by over 100% compared to the previous year. The value of exports nearly tripled, underscoring the country’s pivotal role as a major player in the global tobacco market. However, behind these seemingly positive figures lies a stark reality for tobacco producers: diminishing returns and lower earnings.

Factors Behind the Decline

Several factors contribute to the challenges faced by Zimbabwe’s tobacco farmers, despite the surge in export volume:

  1. Falling Global Prices: While export volumes have soared, global prices for tobacco may have plummeted. Anti-smoking campaigns and increased production in other countries could be driving this downward trend, exerting pressure on the profitability of Zimbabwean producers.
  2. Rising Production Costs: The cost of producing tobacco has escalated significantly, encompassing expenses such as fertilizers, labor, and transportation. This surge in production costs undermines the profitability of tobacco farming, even in the face of steady export prices.
  3. Loan Repayments: Many farmers rely on loans to finance their tobacco production endeavors. A substantial portion of their earnings may be allocated towards loan repayments, further squeezing their profit margins.

El Niño’s Wrath

The specter of El Niño looms large over Zimbabwe’s agricultural landscape, exacerbating the challenges faced by tobacco farmers. The 2024 season has been marred by an El Niño-induced drought, leading to a projected 10% decline in tobacco production compared to the previous year’s record harvest. This natural climate phenomenon disrupts weather patterns, triggering adverse conditions such as droughts, which directly impact agricultural productivity.

Vulnerabilities in Agriculture

Zimbabwe’s heavy reliance on tobacco as a foreign currency earner underscores the vulnerability of its agricultural sector. Smallholder farmers, who cultivate approximately 75% of the country’s tobacco, lack adequate irrigation systems, leaving them susceptible to the vagaries of climate change. With inadequate infrastructure and dependence on rain-fed agriculture, Zimbabwe’s tobacco production becomes inherently vulnerable to weather fluctuations.

Charting a Resilient Future

Addressing the challenges faced by Zimbabwe’s tobacco industry requires a multifaceted approach. Investing in irrigation infrastructure and promoting climate-resilient farming practices are crucial steps towards building resilience against environmental shocks. Additionally, diversification of agricultural activities and value addition could reduce dependency on tobacco and enhance overall agricultural sustainability.


As Zimbabwe grapples with the aftermath of El Niño and navigates the complexities of the global tobacco market, resilience and adaptation emerge as the cornerstones of sustainable agricultural development. By addressing the systemic challenges facing tobacco producers and investing in climate-smart agriculture, Zimbabwe can chart a path towards a more resilient and prosperous agricultural sector, ensuring the well-being of its farmers and the nation as a whole. – Mike Visser

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